Global Educators Cohort Program - Teacher Education

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Glossary of Terms

*multimedia: verbal and pictorial material working together, as in multimedia learning, or multimedia instruction.

Multimedia in this context can mean pictures and written English, or animation and spoken or signed narration. A question for research is the most effective combination of pictorial and verbal information, and the order of presentation when both types of information are received visually.

*dual-coding theory: the theory, grounded in research by Paivio (1986 and 2006) that individuals receive and process pictorial and verbal information separately, integrating the information in working memory.

Although in dual-coding theory pictorial information is usually associated with the visual channel and verbal information with the auditory channel, this link is not necessarily accurate. In particular, Mayer recognizes that both types of information can be received through the visual modality, regardless of the hearing status of the learner, when the multimedia input consists of pictures and print. A question for our research to explore is whether rapidly alternating pictures and signed information is as effective for learning as the rapid alternation of pictures and short passages of text (Mayer, 2009).